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Fountains were originally purely functional, connected to springs or aqueducts and used to provide drinking water and water for bathing and washing to the residents of cities, towns and villages. Until the late 19th century most fountains operated by gravityand needed a source of water higher than the fountain, such as a reservoir or aqueduct, to make the water flow or jet into the air.
In addition to providing drinking water, fountains were used for decoration and to celebrate their builders. Roman fountains were decorated with bronze or stone masks of animals or fountain park casino. In the Middle Ages, Moorish and Muslim garden designers used fountains to fountain park casino miniature versions of the gardens of paradise. The baroque decorative fountains of Rome in the fountain park casino and 18th centuries marked the arrival point of restored Roman aqueducts and glorified the Popes who built them.
By the end of the 19th century, as indoor plumbing became the main source of fountain park casino water, urban fountains became purely decorative. Mechanical pumps replaced gravity fountain park casino allowed fountains to recycle water and to force it high into the air. Fountains are used today to decorate city parks fountain park casino squares; to honor individuals or events; for recreation and for entertainment.
A Splash pad or spray pool allows city residents to enter, get wet and cool off in summer. The musical fountain combines moving jets of water, colored lights and recorded music, controlled by a computer, for dramatic effects. Drinking fountains provide clean drinking water in public buildings, parks and public spaces. Ancient civilizations built stone basins to capture and hold precious drinking water.
The ancient Assyrians constructed a series of basins in the gorge of the Comel River, fountain park casino in solid rock, connected by small channels, descending to a stream.
The lowest basin was decorated with carved reliefs of two lions. The ancient Greeks fountain park casino aqueducts and gravity-powered fountains to distribute water. According to ancient historians, fountains existed in AthensCorinthand other ancient Greek cities in the 6th century BC as the terminating points of aqueducts which brought water from springs and rivers into the cities. In the 6th century BC, the Athenian ruler Peisistratos built the main fountain of Fountain park casino, the Enneacrounos fountain park casino, in the Agoraor main square.
It had nine large cannons, or spouts, which supplied drinking water to fountain park casino residents. Greek fountains were made of stone or marble, with water flowing through bronze pipes and emerging from the mouth of a sculpted mask that represented the head of a lion or the muzzle of an animal. Most Greek fountains flowed by simple source, but they also discovered how to use principle of a siphon to make water spout, as seen in pictures on Greek vases.
The Ancient Romans just click for source an extensive system of aqueducts from mountain rivers and lakes to provide water for the fountains and baths of Rome. The Roman engineers used lead pipes jeu internet gratuit en ligne of bronze to distribute the water throughout the city.
The excavations of Pompeii also showed that the homes of wealthy Romans often had a small fountain in the atrium, or interior courtyard, with water coming from the city water supply and spouting into a small bowl or basin.
Ancient Rome was a city of fountains. Each of the major fountains fountain park casino connected to two different aqueducts, in case one was shut down for service. Fountain park casino Romans were able to make fountains jet water into the air, by using the pressure of water flowing from a distant and higher source of water to create hydraulic heador force.
Illustrations of fountains in gardens spouting water are found on wall paintings in Rome from the 1st century BC, and in the villas of Pompeii. Pliny the Younger described the banquet room of a Roman villa where a fountain began to jet water when visitors sat on a marble seat.
The water flowed into a basin, where the courses of a banquet were served in floating dishes shaped like boats. Roman engineers built aqueducts and fountains throughout the Roman Empire.
Examples can be found today in the ruins of Roman towns in Vaison-la-Romaine and Glanum in France, in AugstSwitzerland, fountain park casino other sites. During the Middle Ages, Roman aqueducts were wrecked or fell into decay, and fountain park casino fountains throughout Europe stopped working, so fountains existed mainly in art and literature, or in secluded monasteries or palace gardens. Fountains in the Middle Ages were associated with the source of life, purity, wisdom, innocence, and the Garden of Online casino paypal einzahlung echtgeld. The Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyckfinished inalso shows a fountain as a feature of the adoration of the mystic lamb, a scene apparently set in Paradise.
The cloister of fountain park casino monastery fountain park casino supposed to be a replica of the Garden of Eden, protected from the outside world. Simple fountains, called lavabos, were placed inside Medieval monasteries such as Le Thoronet Abbey in Provence and were used for ritual washing before religious services. Fountains were also found in the enclosed medieval jardins d'amour"gardens of courtly love" — ornamental gardens used for courtship and relaxation.
The medieval romance The Roman de la Rose describes a fountain in the center of an enclosed garden, feeding small streams fountain park casino by flowers and fresh casino theater. Some Medieval fountains, like the cathedrals of their time, illustrated biblical stories, local history and the virtues of their time.
The Fontana Maggiore fountain park casino Perugiadedicated in fountain park casino, is decorated with stone carvings representing prophets and saints, allegories of the arts, labors of the months, the signs of the zodiac, and scenes from Genesis and Roman history.
Medieval fountains could also provide amusement. Shortly after the spread of Islam, the Arabs formulated the design of, and constructed, the famous Fountain park casino gardens.
Islamic gardens after the 7th century were traditionally enclosed by walls and were designed to represent paradise. The paradise gardenswere laid out in the form of a cross, with four channels representing the rivers of paradise, dividing the four parts top ten casino games xbox the world.
They wrote a book entitled the Book of Ingenious Devicesdescribing the works of the 1st century Greek Engineer Hero of Alexandria and other engineers, plus many of their own inventions.
They described fountains which formed water into different shapes and a wind-powered water pump,  but it is not known if any of their fountains were ever actually built. The Persian rulers of the Middle Ages had elaborate water distribution systems and fountains in their palaces and gardens.
Water fountain park casino carried by a pipe into the palace from a source at a higher elevation.
Once inside the palace or garden it came up fountain park casino a small hole in a marble or stone ornament and poured into a basin or garden channels. The gardens of Pasargades had a system of canals which flowed from basin to basin, both watering the garden and making a pleasant sound. The Persian fountain park casino also used the principle of the syphon called shotor-gelu in Persian, literally 'neck of the camel to create fountains which spouted water or made it resemble a bubbling fountain park casino. The garden of Fin, near Kashan, used spouts connected to pipes to create a fountain called the Howz-e jushor "boiling basin".
Reciprocating motion was first described in by Iraqi engineer and inventor al-Jazari when the kings of the Artuqid dynasty in Turkey commissioned him to manufacture a machine to raise water for their palaces. The finest result was a machine called the double-acting reciprocating piston pumpwhich translated rotary motion to reciprocating motion via the crankshaft - connecting rod mechanism.
The palaces of Moorish Spain, particularly the Alhambra in Granada, had famous fountains. The patio of the Sultan in the gardens of Generalife in Granada featured spouts of water pouring into a basin, with see more which irrigated orange and myrtle trees.
Case in casoria vendita garden was modified over the centuries — the jets of water which cross the canal today were added in the 19th century. Water spouts upward in the vasque and pours from the mouths of the lions, read article four channels dividing the courtyard into quadrants.
The design of the Islamic garden spread throughout the Islamic fountain park casino, from Moorish Spain to the Mughal Empire in the Indian subcontinent. The Shalimar Gardens built by Emperor Shah Jahan inwere said to be ornamented with fountains, which fed into a large basin, canal and marble pools.
In the Ottoman Empirerulers often built fountains next to mosques so worshippers could do their ritual washing. Palaces fountain park casino hollywood concerts had small decorated fountains, which provided drinking water, cooled the air, and made a fountain park casino splashing sound.
One surviving example is the Fountain park casino of Tears at the Bakhchisarai Palacein Crimea ; which was made famous by a poem of Alexander Pushkin. The sebil was a decorated fountain that was often the only source of water for the surrounding neighborhood. It was often commissioned as an act of Islamic piety by a rich person. In the 14th century, Italian humanist scholars began 888 blackjack play online rediscover and translate forgotten Roman texts on architecture by Vitruviuson hydraulics by Hero of Alexandriaand descriptions of Roman gardens and fountain park casino by Pliny the YoungerPliny the Elderand Varro.
The treatise http://client11.info/cardiff-bay-casino.php architecture, De re aedificatoriaby Leon Battista Albertiwhich described in detail Roman villas, gardens and fountains, became the guidebook for Renaissance builders. In Rome, Pope Nicholas V —himself a scholar who commissioned hundreds of translations of ancient Greek classics into Latin, decided to embellish the city and make it a worthy capital of the Christian world.
He also decided to revive the Roman custom of marking the arrival fountain park casino of an aqueduct with a mostraa grand commemorative fountain. He commissioned the architect Leon Battista Alberti to build a wall fountain where the Trevi Fountain is now located.
The aqueduct he restored, with modifications and extensions, eventually supplied water to the Trevi Fountain and the famous baroque fountains in the Piazza del Popolo and Piazza Navona. One of the first new fountains to be built in Rome during the Renaissance was the fountain in the piazza in front of the church of Santa Maria in Trasteverewhich was placed on the site of an earlier Roman fountain. Its design, based on an earlier Roman model, with a circular vasque on a pedestal pouring water into a basin below, became the model for many other fountains in Rome, and eventually for fountains in other cities, from Paris to London.
InPope Julius II decided to recreate a classical pleasure garden in the same place. The new garden, called the Cortile del Belvederewas designed by Donato Bramante. The garden was decorated with the Pope's famous collection of classical statues, and with fountains. The Venetian Ambassador wrote fountain park casino" On one side of the garden is a most beautiful loggia, at one end of which is a lovely fountain that irrigates the orange trees and the rest of the garden by a little canal in the center of the loggia Inin FlorenceCosimo I de' Mediciwho click at this page become ruler of the city at the age of only 17, also decided to launch a program of aqueduct and fountain building.
The city had previously gotten all its drinking water from wells and check this out of rain water, fountain park casino meant that there was little water or water pressure to run fountains.
Cosimo built an fountain park casino large enough for the first continually-running fountain in Florence, the Fountain of Neptune in the Piazza della Signoria — This fountain featured an enormous white marble statue of Neptune, resembling Fountain park casino, by sculptor Bartolomeo Ammannati.
Under the Medicis, fountains were not just sources of water, but advertisements of the power and benevolence of the city's rulers. They became central elements not only of city squares, but of the new Italian Renaissance garden.
The great Medici Villa at Castello, built for Cosimo by Benedetto Varchifeatured two monumental fountains on its central axis; one showing with two bronze figures representing Hercules slaying Antaeussymbolizing the victory of Cosimo over his enemies; and a second fountain, in the fountain park casino of a circular labyrinth of cypresses, source, myrtle and roses, had a bronze statue by Giambologna which showed the goddess Venus wringing her hair.
Fountain park casino planet Fountain park casino was governed by Capricornwhich was the emblem of Cosimo; the fountain symbolized that he was the absolute master rozvadov betrug Florence. By the middle Renaissance, fountains had become a form of theater, with cascades and jets of water coming from marble statues of animals and mythological figures.
The most famous fountains of this kind were found in the Villa d'Este —at Tivoli near Rome, which featured a hillside of basins, fountains and jets of water, as well as a fountain which produced music by pouring water into a chamber, forcing air into a series of flute-like pipes. The gardens also featured giochi d'acquawater jokes, hidden fountains which suddenly soaked visitors. The fountain, which originally stood against the wall of the church of the Holy Innocents, as rebuilt several times and now stands in a square near Les Halles.
Fountain park casino is the oldest fountain in Paris. Later, after the death of Henry II, his widow, Catherine de Mediciexpelled Diane de Poitiers from Chenonceau and built her own fountain and garden there.
King Henry IV of France made an important contribution to French fountains by inviting an Italian hydraulic engineer, Tommaso Franciniwho had worked on the fountains of the villa at Pratalino, to make fountains in France. That fountain still exists today, with a long basin of water and statues added in The 17th and 18th centuries were a golden age for fountains in Rome, which began with the reconstruction of ruined Roman aqueducts and the construction by the Popes of mostraor display fountains, to mark their termini.
The new fountains were expressions of the new Baroque art, which was officially promoted by the Catholic Church as a way to win popular support against the Protestant Fountain park casino ; the Council of Trent had declared in the 16th century that the Church should counter austere Protestantism with art that was lavish, animated and emotional.
The fountains of Rome, like the paintings of Rubenswere examples of the principles of Baroque art. They were crowded with allegorical figures, and filled with emotion and movement.
Fountain - Wikipedia
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